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Columbus was later arrested in and dismissed from his posts. He and his sons, Diego and Fernando, then conducted a lengthy series of court cases against the Castilian crown , known as the pleitos colombinos , alleging that the Crown had illegally reneged on its contractual obligations to Columbus and his heirs.

Diego resumed litigation in , which lasted until , and further disputes continued until Between and , Columbus completed four round-trip voyages between Spain and the Americas, each voyage being sponsored by the Crown of Castile.

On his first voyage, he independently discovered the Americas and magnetic declination. Columbus always insisted, in the face of mounting evidence to the contrary, that the lands that he visited during those voyages were part of the Asian continent, as previously described by Marco Polo and other European travelers.

On the evening of 3 August , Columbus departed from Palos de la Frontera with three ships. The largest was a carrack Spanish: The other two were smaller caravels.

The name of one is lost: Columbus first sailed to the Canary Islands , which belonged to Castile. Columbus called the island in what is now the Bahamas San Salvador meaning "Holy Savior" ; the natives called it Guanahani.

Exactly which island in the Bahamas this corresponds to is unresolved. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios Spanish for "Indians".

I believe that people from the mainland come here to take them as slaves. They ought to make good and skilled servants, for they repeat very quickly whatever we say to them.

I think they can very easily be made Christians, for they seem to have no religion. If it pleases our Lord, I will take six of them to Your Highnesses when I depart, in order that they may learn our language.

Columbus also explored the northeast coast of Cuba , where he landed on 28 October. Columbus, for his part, continued to the northern coast of Hispaniola , where he landed on 5 December.

The wreck was used as a target for cannon fire to impress the native peoples. Columbus left 39 men, including Luis de Torres , the converso interpreter , who spoke Hebrew and Arabic , [ citation needed ] and founded the settlement of La Navidad at the site of present-day Bord de Mer de Limonade, Haiti.

Half of his crew went ashore to say prayers in a chapel to give thanks for having survived the storm. But while praying, they were imprisoned by the governor of the island, ostensibly on suspicion of being pirates.

After a two-day standoff, the prisoners were released, and Columbus again set sail for Spain. Another storm forced him into the port at Lisbon.

There, he was interviewed by Bartolomeu Dias , who had rounded the Cape of Good Hope a few years earlier, in — Relations between Portugal and Castile were poor at the time.

After spending more than a week in Portugal, and paying his respects to Eleanor of Viseu , Columbus again set sail for Spain.

Word of his finding new lands rapidly spread throughout Europe. The passengers included priests, farmers, and soldiers, who would be the new colonists.

This reflected the new policy of creating not just "colonies of exploitation", but also "colonies of settlement" from which to launch missions dedicated to converting the natives to Christianity.

As in the first voyage, the fleet stopped at the Canary Islands , from which it departed on 13 October, following a more southerly course than on the previous expedition.

He explored that island from 4 to 10 November. The same childhood friend reported in a letter that Columbus had provided one of the captured indigenous women to him.

When I had taken her to my cabin she was naked—as was their custom. I was filled with a desire to take my pleasure with her and attempted to satisfy my desire.

She was unwilling, and so treated me with her nails that I wished I had never begun. But—to cut a long story short—I then took a piece of rope and whipped her soundly, and she let forth such incredible screams that you would not have believed your ears.

Eventually we came to such terms, I assure you, that you would have thought that she had been brought up in a school for whores.

Several Europeans were wounded, but they killed all of the Caribs, and learned that the two boys had recently been castrated by their captors.

On 22 November, Columbus returned to Hispaniola, where he intended to visit the fort of La Navidad , built during his first voyage and located on the northern coast of Haiti.

Columbus found the fort in ruins, destroyed by the native Taino people. Columbus then sailed more than kilometres 62 miles eastwards along the northern coast of Hispaniola, establishing a new settlement, which he called La Isabela , in the present-day Dominican Republic.

King John reportedly knew of the existence of such a mainland because "canoes had been found which set out from the coast of Guinea [West Africa] and sailed to the west with merchandise.

Three of the ships headed directly for Hispaniola with much-needed supplies, while Columbus took the other three in an exploration of what might lie to the south of the Caribbean islands he had already visited, including a hoped-for passage to continental Asia.

As he crossed the Atlantic, Columbus discovered that the angle between North as indicated by a magnetic compass and North as measured by the position of the pole star changed with his position a phenomenon now known as " compass variation ".

He would later use his previous measurements of the compass variation to adjust his reckoning. He then touched the mainland of South America at the Paria Peninsula.

Exploring the new continent, Columbus correctly interpreted the enormous quantity of fresh water that the Orinoco delivered into the Atlantic Ocean as evidence that he had reached a large landmass rather than another island.

He also speculated that the new continent might be the location of the biblical Garden of Eden. He then sailed to the islands of Chacachacare and Margarita.

In poor health, Columbus returned to Hispaniola on 19 August, only to find that many of the Spanish settlers of the new colony were in rebellion against his rule, claiming that Columbus had misled them about the supposedly bountiful riches of the New World.

A number of returning settlers and sailors lobbied against Columbus at the Spanish court , accusing him and his brothers of gross mismanagement.

Columbus had some of his crew hanged for disobedience. He had an economic interest in the enslavement of the Hispaniola natives and for that reason was not eager to baptize them, which attracted criticism from some churchmen.

Columbus was eventually forced to make peace with the rebellious colonists on humiliating terms. He was eventually freed and allowed to return to the New World, but not as governor.

Columbus made a fourth voyage nominally in search of the Strait of Malacca to the Indian Ocean. He sailed to Arzila on the Moroccan coast to rescue Portuguese soldiers whom he had heard were under siege by the Moors.

On 15 June, they landed at Carbet on the island of Martinique Martinica. A hurricane was brewing, so he continued on, hoping to find shelter on Hispaniola.

He arrived at Santo Domingo on 29 June, but was denied port, and the new governor refused to listen to his storm prediction. In addition to the ships, lives including that of the governor, Francisco de Bobadilla and an immense cargo of gold were surrendered to the sea.

Here Bartolomeo found native merchants and a large canoe, which was described as being "long as a galley" and filled with cargo. On 5 December , Columbus and his crew found themselves in a storm unlike any they had ever experienced.

In his journal Columbus writes,. For nine days I was as one lost, without hope of life. Eyes never beheld the sea so angry, so high, so covered with foam.

The wind not only prevented our progress, but offered no opportunity to run behind any headland for shelter; hence we were forced to keep out in this bloody ocean, seething like a pot on a hot fire.

Never did the sky look more terrible; for one whole day and night it blazed like a furnace, and the lightning broke with such violence that each time I wondered if it had carried off my spars and sails; the flashes came with such fury and frightfulness that we all thought that the ship would be blasted.

All this time the water never ceased to fall from the sky; I do not say it rained, for it was like another deluge.

The men were so worn out that they longed for death to end their dreadful suffering. On 6 April, one of the ships became stranded in the river.

Shipworms also damaged the ships in tropical waters. Columbus left for Hispaniola on 16 April heading north. On 10 May he sighted the Cayman Islands , naming them " Las Tortugas " after the numerous sea turtles there.

His ships next sustained more damage in a storm off the coast of Cuba. Unable to travel farther, on 25 June they were beached in St. For one year Columbus and his men remained stranded on Jamaica.

Following his first voyage, Columbus was appointed Viceroy and Governor of the Indies under the terms of the Capitulations of Santa Fe.

In practice, this primarily entailed the administration of the colonies in the island of Hispaniola , whose capital was established in Santo Domingo.

By the end of his third voyage, Columbus was physically and mentally exhausted, his body wracked by arthritis and his eyes by ophthalmia. In October , he sent two ships to Spain, asking the Court of Spain to appoint a royal commissioner to help him govern.

By this time, accusations of tyranny and incompetence on the part of Columbus had also reached the Court. Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand responded by removing Columbus from power and replacing him with Francisco de Bobadilla , a member of the Order of Calatrava.

Bobadilla, who ruled as governor from until his death in a storm in , had also been tasked by the Court with investigating the accusations of brutality made against Columbus.

Arriving in Santo Domingo while Columbus was away in the explorations of his third voyage , Bobadilla was immediately met with complaints about all three Columbus brothers: Christopher, Bartolomeo, and Diego.

Bobadilla reported to Spain that Columbus regularly used torture and mutilation to govern Hispaniola. The page report, found in in the national archive in the Spanish city of Simancas , contains testimonies from 23 people, including both enemies and supporters of Columbus, about the treatment of colonial subjects by Columbus and his brothers during his seven-year rule.

According to the report, Columbus once punished a man found guilty of stealing corn by having his ears and nose cut off and then selling him into slavery.

Testimony recorded in the report stated that Columbus congratulated his brother Bartolomeo on "defending the family" when the latter ordered a woman paraded naked through the streets and then had her tongue cut out for suggesting that Columbus was of lowly birth.

Because of their gross misgovernance, Columbus and his brothers were arrested and imprisoned upon their return to Spain from the third voyage.

They lingered in jail for six weeks before King Ferdinand ordered their release. Not long after, the king and queen summoned the Columbus brothers to the Alhambra palace in Granada.

Columbus had always claimed the conversion of non-believers as one reason for his explorations, but he grew increasingly religious in his later years.

Probably with the assistance of his son Diego and his friend the Carthusian monk Gaspar Gorricio, Columbus produced two books during his later years: In his later years, Columbus demanded that the Spanish Crown give him 10 percent of all profits made in the new lands, as stipulated in the Capitulations of Santa Fe.

Because he had been relieved of his duties as governor, the crown did not feel bound by that contract and his demands were rejected.

After his death, his heirs sued the Crown for a part of the profits from trade with America, as well as other rewards. This led to a protracted series of legal disputes known as the pleitos colombinos "Columbian lawsuits".

During a violent storm on his first return voyage, Columbus, then 41, suffered an attack of what was believed at the time to be gout.

In subsequent years, he was plagued with what was thought to be influenza and other fevers, bleeding from the eyes, and prolonged attacks of gout.

The suspected attacks increased in duration and severity, sometimes leaving Columbus bedridden for months at a time, and culminated in his death 14 years later.

Arnett, a rheumatologist and professor of internal medicine, pathology and laboratory medicine the University of Texas Medical School at Houston.

On 20 May , aged probably 54, Columbus died in Valladolid , Spain. In , the remains were transferred to Colonial Santo Domingo , in the present-day Dominican Republic.

After Cuba became independent following the Spanish—American War in , the remains were moved back to Spain, to the Cathedral of Seville , [] where they were placed on an elaborate catafalque.

However, a lead box bearing an inscription identifying "Don Christopher Columbus" and containing bone fragments and a bullet was discovered at Santo Domingo in Initial observations suggested that the bones did not appear to belong to somebody with the physique or age at death associated with Columbus.

Such evidence, together with anthropologic and historic analyses, led the researchers to conclude that the remains found in Seville belonged to Christopher Columbus.

The World Columbian Exposition in Chicago, , commemorated the th anniversary of the landing of Christopher Columbus in the Americas. The United States Postal Service participated in the celebration issuing the first US commemorative postage stamps , a series of 16 postage issues called the Columbian Issue depicting Columbus, Queen Isabella and others in the various stages of his several voyages.

The issues range in value from the 1-cent to the 5-dollar denominations. A total of two billion stamps were issued for all the Columbian denominations, and 72 percent of these were the two-cent stamps, "Landing of Columbus", which paid the first-class rate for domestic mail at the time.

In , a second Columbian issue was released that was identical to the first to commemorate the th anniversary, except for the date in the upper right hand corner of each stamp.

These issues were made from the original dies of which the first engraved issues of were produced. The United States issued the series jointly for the first time with three other countries, Italy in lire, Portugal in escudos and Spain in pesetas.

There was a massive exchange of animals, plants, fungi, diseases, technologies, mineral wealth and ideas.

Spanish is now one the most widely spoken languages in the world. Roman Catholicism is the most widely practiced religion in Latin America.

The tomato was one of the crops made global by the Columbian exchange. Smallpox , one of the deadliest diseases brought to the New World.

The horse was no longer present in North America until the Columbian exchange. Large numbers of slaves were brought to the New World between and the mid 19th century.

Roughly 3, metric tons of silver was imported by Spain from the Americas. Though Christopher Columbus came to be considered the discoverer of America in US and European popular culture, his historical legacy is more nuanced.

America was discovered and populated by its indigenous population. Historians have traditionally argued that Columbus remained convinced to the very end that his journeys had been along the east coast of Asia, [] but writer Kirkpatrick Sale argues that a document in the Book of Privileges indicates Columbus knew he found a new continent.

The term " pre-Columbian " is usually used to refer to the peoples and cultures of the Americas before the arrival of Columbus and his European successors.

Columbus is often credited with refuting a prevalent belief in a flat Earth. However, this legacy is a popular misconception.

To the contrary, the spherical shape of the Earth had been known to scholars since antiquity , and was common knowledge among sailors. As such it contains no sign of the Americas and yet demonstrates the common belief in a spherical Earth.

Historically, the English had downplayed Columbus and emphasized the role of the Venetian John Cabot as a pioneer explorer, but for the emerging United States, Cabot made for a poor national hero.

Veneration of Columbus in America dates back to colonial times. The name Columbia for "America" first appeared in a weekly publication of the debates of the British Parliament.

Outside the United States the name was used in for the Gran Colombia , a precursor of the modern Republic of Colombia.

In , descendants of Columbus undertook to dismantle the Columbus family chapel in Spain and move it to Boalsburg near State College , Pennsylvania, where it may now be visited by the public.

Since the late 20th century, historians have criticized Columbus for initiating colonization and for abuse of natives.

Columbus required the natives to pay tribute in gold and cotton. The natives had no acquired immunity to these new diseases and suffered high fatalities.

There is also documentation that they were overworked. The natives of the island were systematically subjugated via the encomienda system implemented by Columbus.

The strongest were transported to Spain to be sold as slaves; [] 40 percent of the shipped died en route. Loewen asserts that "Columbus not only sent the first slaves across the Atlantic, he probably sent more slaves—about five thousand—than any other individual.

Natives who brought this amount to the Spanish were given a copper token to hang around their necks. The Spanish cut off the hands of those without tokens, and left them to bleed to death.

During his brief reign Columbus was reported to have executed Spanish colonists for minor crimes as well as use dismemberment as another form of punishment.

When Columbus fell ill in , "what little restraint he had maintained over his men disappeared as he went through a lengthy period of recuperation. The troops went wild, stealing, killing, raping, and torturing natives, trying to force them to divulge the whereabouts of the imagined treasure-houses of gold.

Dogs were used to hunt down natives who attempted to flee. Soldiers would use their captives for sword practice, attempting to decapitate them or cut them in half with a single blow.

When taken prisoner, they were hanged or burned to death. Desperation led to mass suicides and infanticide among the natives. Within indigenous circles, Columbus is often viewed as a key agent of genocide.

However some of these accounts may be part of Black Legend , [] [] [] while others challenge the genocide narrative. By the end of , disease and famine had claimed two-thirds of the Spanish settlers.

They could not get up to search for food, and everyone else was too sick to care for them, so they starved to death in their beds.

Mann wrote "It was as if the suffering these diseases had caused in Eurasia over the past millennia were concentrated into the span of decades.

Some historians have argued that, while brutal, Columbus was simply a product of his time, and being a figure of the 15th century, should not be judged by the morality of the 20th century.

Although an abundance of artwork involving Christopher Columbus exists, no authentic contemporary portrait has been found. Loewen , author of Lies My Teacher Told Me , believes the various posthumous portraits have no historical value.

Accounts consistently describe Columbus as a large and physically strong man of some six feet 1. The most iconic image of Columbus is a portrait by Sebastiano del Piombo , which has been reproduced in many textbooks.

It agrees with descriptions of Columbus in that it shows a large man with auburn hair, but the painting dates from and cannot, therefore, have been painted from life.

Furthermore, the inscription identifying the subject as Columbus was probably added later, and the face shown differs from other images, including that of the "Virgin of the Navigators.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the explorer. For other uses, see Christopher Columbus disambiguation. For other uses, see Cristoforo Colombo disambiguation.

Posthumous portrait of Christopher Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo , There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus.

Origin theories of Christopher Columbus. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Voyages of Christopher Columbus. Columbian Exchange and List of places named for Christopher Columbus.

The two main early biographies of Columbus have been taken as literal truth by hundreds of writers, in large part because they were written by individuals closely connected to Columbus or his writings.

Both biographies have serious shortcomings as evidence. Portraits may be seen here: The youngest brother of Christopher Columbus".

New International Encyclopedia 1st ed. Columbus The Four Voyages, — Ra Stamparia de Tarigo. Retrieved 2 February Christopher Columbus was Portuguese.

Express Printers, Fall River. Archived from the original on 23 March Tirado, PhD Professor History. The Wife of Columbus: Simon and Schuster Retrieved 29 July The Christian Century in Japan: University of California Press.

Mutiny and Its Bounty: Leadership Lessons from the Age of Discovery. Archived from the original on 27 June Popular Myths about America from Columbus to Clinton.

Inventing the Flat Earth. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Universe. Cosmos ; the mean circumference of the Earth is 40, The Life of Christopher Columbus , Boston: Reissued by the Morison Press, Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 18 April Jack Kahuna Laguna voice.

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Show all 37 episodes. Of course you identify as an island. Be welcoming to love. And the truth is, we really have been marooned. And to compound it all, that old myth is true: And given the nature of human beings, so are religions.

Sometimes the symbols correspond fairly closely to some of the aspects of the external reality behind our experience; than you have science and common sense.

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The remaining two thirds of all sorrow is homemade and, so far as the universe if concerned, unnecessary. Columbus discovered the viable sailing route to the Americas, a continent which was not then known to the Old World.

While what he thought he had discovered was a route to the Far East, he is credited with the opening of the Americas for conquest and settlement by Europeans.

He went to sea at a young age and travelled widely, as far north as the British Isles and possibly Iceland and as far south as what is now Ghana.

He married a Portuguese woman and was based in Lisbon for several years, but later took a Spanish mistress; he had one son with each woman.

Though largely self-educated, Columbus was widely read in geography, astronomy, and history. He formulated a plan to seek a western sea passage to the East Indies , hoping to profit from the lucrative spice trade.

After years of lobbying, the Catholic Monarchs of Spain agreed to sponsor a journey west, in the name of the Crown of Castile. Columbus left Spain in August with three ships, and after a stopover in the Canary Islands made landfall in the Americas on 12 October now celebrated as Columbus Day.

His landing place was an island in the Bahamas , known by its native inhabitants as Guanahani ; its exact location is uncertain. Columbus subsequently visited Cuba and Hispaniola , establishing a colony in what is now Haiti —the first European settlement in the Americas since the Norse colonies almost years earlier.

He arrived back in Spain in early , bringing a number of captive natives with him. Word of his discoveries soon spread throughout Europe.

Columbus would make three further voyages to the New World, exploring the Lesser Antilles in , Trinidad and the northern coast of South America in , and the eastern coast of Central America in Many of the names he gave to geographical features—particularly islands—are still in use.

He continued to seek a passage to the East Indies, and the extent to which he was aware that the Americas were a wholly separate landmass is uncertain; he gave the name indios "Indians" to the indigenous peoples he encountered.

The transfers between the Old World and New World that followed his first voyage are known as the Columbian exchange , and the period of human habitation in the Americas prior to his arrival is known as the Pre-Columbian era.

Many landmarks and institutions in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including the country of Colombia. His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa.

Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood. Columbus never wrote in his native language, which is presumed to have been a Genoese variety of Ligurian his name would translate in the 16th-century Genoese language as Christoffa [8] Corombo [9] Ligurian pronunciation: In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at the age of In , the Columbus family moved to Savona , where Domenico took over a tavern.

Some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but, instead, from the Aragon region of Spain [12] or from Portugal.

In , Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione , Di Negro and Spinola families of Genoa. Later, he allegedly made a trip to Chios , an Aegean island then ruled by Genoa.

He docked in Bristol , England [17] and Galway , Ireland. In , he was possibly in Iceland. Columbus based himself in Lisbon from to In or , his son Diego Columbus was born.

Between and , Columbus traded along the coasts of West Africa , reaching the Portuguese trading post of Elmina at the Guinea coast in present-day Ghana.

He returned to Portugal to settle her estate and take his son Diego with him. Columbus recognized the boy as his offspring. Columbus entrusted his older, legitimate son Diego to take care of Beatriz and pay the pension set aside for her following his death, but Diego was negligent in his duties.

Ambitious, Columbus eventually learned Latin, Portuguese , and Castilian. According to historian Edmund Morgan ,. Columbus was not a scholarly man.

Yet he studied these books, made hundreds of marginal notations in them and came out with ideas about the world that were characteristically simple and strong and sometimes wrong, Throughout his life, Columbus also showed a keen interest in the Bible and in Biblical prophecies , often quoting biblical texts in his letters and logs.

For example, part of the argument that he submitted to the Spanish Catholic Monarchs when he sought their support for his proposed expedition to reach the Indies by sailing west was based on his reading of the Second Book of Esdras Ezra: Towards the end of his life, he produced a Book of Prophecies in which his career as an explorer is interpreted in the light of Christian eschatology and of apocalypticism.

With the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in , the land route to Asia became much more difficult and dangerous. Portuguese navigators tried to find a sea way to Asia.

Afonso rejected his proposal. Christian writers whose works clearly reflect the conviction that the Earth is spherical include Saint Bede the Venerable in his Reckoning of Time , written around AD As far back as the 3rd century BC, Eratosthenes had correctly computed the circumference of the Earth by using simple geometry and studying the shadows cast by objects at two remote locations.

These measurements were widely known among scholars, but confusion about the old-fashioned units of distance in which they were expressed led to some debate about the size of the Earth.

He also believed that Japan which he called "Cipangu", following Marco Polo was much larger, farther to the east from China "Cathay" , and closer to the equator than it is, and that there were inhabited islands even farther to the east than Japan, including the mythical Antillia , which he thought might lie not much farther to the west than the Azores.

In this, he was influenced by the ideas of Florentine astronomer, Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli , who corresponded with Columbus in [33] and who also defended the feasibility of a westward route to Asia.

The true figure is now known to be vastly larger: Most European navigators reasonably concluded that a westward voyage from Europe to Asia was unfeasible.

The Catholic Monarchs, however, having completed an expensive war in the Iberian Peninsula , were eager to obtain a competitive edge over other European countries in the quest for trade with the Indies.

Though Columbus was wrong about the number of degrees of longitude that separated Europe from the Far East and about the distance that each degree represented, he did possess valuable knowledge about the trade winds , which would prove to be the key to his successful navigation of the Atlantic Ocean.

The precise first land sighting and landing point was San Salvador Island. Instead, Columbus returned home by following the curving trade winds northeastward to the middle latitudes of the North Atlantic, where he was able to catch the " westerlies " that blow eastward to the coast of Western Europe.

There, in turn, the winds curve southward towards the Iberian Peninsula. It is unclear whether Columbus learned about the winds from his own sailing experience or if he had heard about them from others.

The corresponding technique for efficient travel in the Atlantic appears to have been exploited first by the Portuguese, who referred to it as the Volta do mar "turn of the sea".

By sailing directly due west from the Canary Islands during hurricane season , skirting the so-called horse latitudes of the mid-Atlantic, Columbus risked either being becalmed or running into a tropical cyclone , both of which, by chance, he avoided.

Columbus also requested he be made "Great Admiral of the Ocean", appointed governor of any and all lands he discovered, and given one-tenth of all revenue from those lands.

In , Columbus again appealed to the court of Portugal, resulting in John II again inviting him for an audience. That meeting also proved unsuccessful, in part because not long afterwards Bartolomeu Dias returned to Portugal with news of his successful rounding of the southern tip of Africa near the Cape of Good Hope.

Columbus traveled from Portugal to both Genoa and Venice , but he received encouragement from neither. He had also dispatched his brother Bartholomew to the court of Henry VII of England to inquire whether the English crown might sponsor his expedition, but also without success.

Columbus had sought an audience from the monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile , who had united several kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula by marrying and were ruling together.

On 1 May , permission having been granted, Columbus presented his plans to Queen Isabella, who, in turn, referred it to a committee. After the passing of much time, the savants of Spain, like their counterparts in Portugal , replied that Columbus had grossly underestimated the distance to Asia.

They pronounced the idea impractical and advised their Royal Highnesses to pass on the proposed venture.

However, to keep Columbus from taking his ideas elsewhere, and perhaps to keep their options open, the Catholic Monarchs gave him an annual allowance of 12, maravedis and, in , furnished him with a letter ordering all cities and towns under their domain to provide him food and lodging at no cost.

After continually lobbying at the Spanish court and two years of negotiations, he finally had success in January Isabella turned him down on the advice of her confessor.

Columbus was leaving town by mule in despair when Ferdinand intervened. Isabella then sent a royal guard to fetch him, and Ferdinand later claimed credit for being "the principal cause why those islands were discovered".

He had the right to nominate three persons, from whom the sovereigns would choose one, for any office in the new lands. He would be entitled to 10 percent of all the revenues from the new lands in perpetuity.

Additionally, he would also have the option of buying one-eighth interest in any commercial venture with the new lands and receive one-eighth of the profits.

Columbus was later arrested in and dismissed from his posts. He and his sons, Diego and Fernando, then conducted a lengthy series of court cases against the Castilian crown , known as the pleitos colombinos , alleging that the Crown had illegally reneged on its contractual obligations to Columbus and his heirs.

Diego resumed litigation in , which lasted until , and further disputes continued until Between and , Columbus completed four round-trip voyages between Spain and the Americas, each voyage being sponsored by the Crown of Castile.

On his first voyage, he independently discovered the Americas and magnetic declination. Columbus always insisted, in the face of mounting evidence to the contrary, that the lands that he visited during those voyages were part of the Asian continent, as previously described by Marco Polo and other European travelers.

On the evening of 3 August , Columbus departed from Palos de la Frontera with three ships. The largest was a carrack Spanish: The other two were smaller caravels.

The name of one is lost: Columbus first sailed to the Canary Islands , which belonged to Castile. Columbus called the island in what is now the Bahamas San Salvador meaning "Holy Savior" ; the natives called it Guanahani.

Exactly which island in the Bahamas this corresponds to is unresolved. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios Spanish for "Indians".

I believe that people from the mainland come here to take them as slaves. They ought to make good and skilled servants, for they repeat very quickly whatever we say to them.

I think they can very easily be made Christians, for they seem to have no religion. If it pleases our Lord, I will take six of them to Your Highnesses when I depart, in order that they may learn our language.

Columbus also explored the northeast coast of Cuba , where he landed on 28 October. Columbus, for his part, continued to the northern coast of Hispaniola , where he landed on 5 December.

The wreck was used as a target for cannon fire to impress the native peoples. Columbus left 39 men, including Luis de Torres , the converso interpreter , who spoke Hebrew and Arabic , [ citation needed ] and founded the settlement of La Navidad at the site of present-day Bord de Mer de Limonade, Haiti.

Half of his crew went ashore to say prayers in a chapel to give thanks for having survived the storm. But while praying, they were imprisoned by the governor of the island, ostensibly on suspicion of being pirates.

After a two-day standoff, the prisoners were released, and Columbus again set sail for Spain. Another storm forced him into the port at Lisbon.

There, he was interviewed by Bartolomeu Dias , who had rounded the Cape of Good Hope a few years earlier, in — Relations between Portugal and Castile were poor at the time.

After spending more than a week in Portugal, and paying his respects to Eleanor of Viseu , Columbus again set sail for Spain.

Word of his finding new lands rapidly spread throughout Europe. The passengers included priests, farmers, and soldiers, who would be the new colonists.

This reflected the new policy of creating not just "colonies of exploitation", but also "colonies of settlement" from which to launch missions dedicated to converting the natives to Christianity.

As in the first voyage, the fleet stopped at the Canary Islands , from which it departed on 13 October, following a more southerly course than on the previous expedition.

He explored that island from 4 to 10 November. The same childhood friend reported in a letter that Columbus had provided one of the captured indigenous women to him.

When I had taken her to my cabin she was naked—as was their custom. I was filled with a desire to take my pleasure with her and attempted to satisfy my desire.

She was unwilling, and so treated me with her nails that I wished I had never begun. But—to cut a long story short—I then took a piece of rope and whipped her soundly, and she let forth such incredible screams that you would not have believed your ears.

Eventually we came to such terms, I assure you, that you would have thought that she had been brought up in a school for whores.

Several Europeans were wounded, but they killed all of the Caribs, and learned that the two boys had recently been castrated by their captors.

On 22 November, Columbus returned to Hispaniola, where he intended to visit the fort of La Navidad , built during his first voyage and located on the northern coast of Haiti.

Columbus found the fort in ruins, destroyed by the native Taino people. Columbus then sailed more than kilometres 62 miles eastwards along the northern coast of Hispaniola, establishing a new settlement, which he called La Isabela , in the present-day Dominican Republic.

King John reportedly knew of the existence of such a mainland because "canoes had been found which set out from the coast of Guinea [West Africa] and sailed to the west with merchandise.

Three of the ships headed directly for Hispaniola with much-needed supplies, while Columbus took the other three in an exploration of what might lie to the south of the Caribbean islands he had already visited, including a hoped-for passage to continental Asia.

As he crossed the Atlantic, Columbus discovered that the angle between North as indicated by a magnetic compass and North as measured by the position of the pole star changed with his position a phenomenon now known as " compass variation ".

He would later use his previous measurements of the compass variation to adjust his reckoning. He then touched the mainland of South America at the Paria Peninsula.

Exploring the new continent, Columbus correctly interpreted the enormous quantity of fresh water that the Orinoco delivered into the Atlantic Ocean as evidence that he had reached a large landmass rather than another island.

He also speculated that the new continent might be the location of the biblical Garden of Eden. He then sailed to the islands of Chacachacare and Margarita.

In poor health, Columbus returned to Hispaniola on 19 August, only to find that many of the Spanish settlers of the new colony were in rebellion against his rule, claiming that Columbus had misled them about the supposedly bountiful riches of the New World.

A number of returning settlers and sailors lobbied against Columbus at the Spanish court , accusing him and his brothers of gross mismanagement.

Columbus had some of his crew hanged for disobedience. He had an economic interest in the enslavement of the Hispaniola natives and for that reason was not eager to baptize them, which attracted criticism from some churchmen.

Columbus was eventually forced to make peace with the rebellious colonists on humiliating terms. He was eventually freed and allowed to return to the New World, but not as governor.

Columbus made a fourth voyage nominally in search of the Strait of Malacca to the Indian Ocean. He sailed to Arzila on the Moroccan coast to rescue Portuguese soldiers whom he had heard were under siege by the Moors.

On 15 June, they landed at Carbet on the island of Martinique Martinica. A hurricane was brewing, so he continued on, hoping to find shelter on Hispaniola.

He arrived at Santo Domingo on 29 June, but was denied port, and the new governor refused to listen to his storm prediction.

Desperation led to mass suicides and infanticide among the natives. Retrieved 20 March The Impatient Patient Dr. Half of his crew went ashore to say prayers in a chapel to give thanks for aus geld basteln survived the storm. Roman Catholicism is the most widely practiced religion in Latin America. Stevenson was also drawn to her, and they kept up a heated correspondence over several years in which he wavered between the role of a suitor and a son he addressed her as "Madonna". It is an Island of the Soul. Another Night Video short Clients. On 22 November, Columbus returned to Hispaniola, where he intended to visit the fort of La Navidadbuilt during 888 casino konto schliessen first voyage 888 casino konto schliessen located on oceans eleven schauspieler northern coast of Haiti. First published in the Book of raw Shaft. For other uses, see Cristoforo Colombo disambiguation.

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